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The Doctrine of Completed Staff Work

September 28, 2009

This may be the finest memorandum ever produced. It was written and circulated by Brigadier General George A. Rehm, executive officer for the G-3, Operations section, for MacArthur’s headquarters in the Southwest Pacific Area during World War II.


1. The doctrine of “completed staff work” is a doctrine of this office.

2. “Completed staff work” is the study of a problem, and presentation of a solution, by a staff member, in such form that all that remains to be done on the part of the commander is to indicate approval or disapproval of the completed action. The words “completed action” are emphasized because the more difficult the problem is, the more the tendency is to present the problem to the commander in a piecemeal fashion.

It is your duty as a staff member to work out the details. You should not consult your commander in the determination of those details, no matter how perplexing they may be. You may and should consult other staff members. The product, whether it involves the pronouncement of a new policy or affects an established one, when presented to the commander for approval or disapproval, must be worked out in a finished form.

3.   The impulse, which often comes to the inexperienced staff member, to ask the commander what to do, recurs more often when the problem is difficult. It is accompanied by a feeling of mental frustration. It is easy to ask the commander what to do, and it appears too easy for the commander to answer. Resist that impulse. You will succumb to it only if you do not know your job.

4. Do not worry your commander with long explanations and memos. Writing a memo to your commander does not constitute completed staff work. But writing a memo for your commander to send to someone else does. Your views should be placed before the commander in finished form so that the commander can make them his or her views simply by signing the document. In most instances, completed staff work results in a single document prepared for the signature of the commander without accompanying comment. If the proper result is reached, the commander will usually recognize it at once. If the commander wants comment or explanation, he will ask for it.


5. The “completed staff work” theory does not preclude a rough draft, but the rough draft must not be a half-baked idea. It must be complete in every respect except that it lacks the requisite number of copies and need not be neat. But a rough draft must not be an excuse for shifting to the commander the burden of formulating the action.

6. The completed staff work theory may result in more work for the staff member but it results in more freedom for the commander. This is as it should be. Further, it accomplishes two things:

a. The commander is protected from half-baked ideas, voluminous memos, and immature oral presentations.

b. The staff member who has a real idea to sell is enabled more readily to find a market.

7. When you have finished your completed staff work the final test is this:

If you were the commander would you be willing to sign the paper you have prepared, and stake your professional reputation on its being right?

If the answer is no, take it back and work it over, because it is not yet “completed staff work.”

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